Teachers make feedback too hard. I’m convinced it can be easier. Over this four-part post, I’ll outline a process in-progress for easier feedback.
Step 1: Set clear objective for each class | Step 2: Use daily self-assessments | Step 3 Teach students how to give each other feedback (two methods that actually work) | Step 4: Find your *imperfect* system for teacher feedback
To get this process right, we have to know what feedback is and what it is not. This concept confused me when I first thought about it.
To put it in simplest terms: we say we’re giving feedback, but we’re giving advice and judgement. Grant Wiggins taught me this.
Less managing, more feedback
We stress. We’re waiting for kids to act up.
We’re not in meaningful conversations with students.
We’re bored because we’re watching students work.
A practice-changing book
Teach the life skill of self-awareness
Ask these three questions everyday
You may notice 4 benefits to daily self-assessment:
The students acknowledge the goal of the day by writing it down. Point to all the anchor charts you want. Reading, hearing, writing, then reviewing a goal helps students remember it.
It creates a natural opening and closing for the day (Here’s what you should be able to do today…How well can you do it now? How well can you do it at the end of the period? How hard did you try?)
Formative assessment happens as I walk around. I can also stop and compare students’ ratings to my observations.
This takes no technology or extra supplies. Technology can help us give better feedback. Kaizena is great. But a notebook, a clear goal, and a few minutes at the beginning and ending of class are effective, too. Below is example of a students goal sheet. The columns are, from left: the date, the goal, a rating about effort for the day, a pre-assessment, and a post-assessment.
How to begin using daily self-assessments
Two peer feedback strategies that make students care
Two years ago, my summer vacation was a time of change. My wife and I were figuring out how to be parents to our newborn son. My body was figuring out how to live without its appendix (emergency surgery). And, relevant to readers here, I was deciding how to arrange the new room that my principal had assigned me.
This all relates to giving students better feedback, I promise…
For this new room, the plan was simple: ditch the desks. Bring in tables and chairs. Achieve collaboration utopia. Is that how you envision a plan when you’re excited, too?
By making three trips to the school, I found 6 tables and 25 chairs.
This has paid off in a few ways. Students have built-in groups and discussion partners. There is less time moving between individual and group work. For smaller classes, there are more options for students to find the best spot in the room to learn. And easier to use peer feedback strategies.
Have desks? Fear not. Many desk arrangements work for small-group collaboration. It’s all about planning for these in-class feedback situations.
Starting here? A quick summary for you: teachers give advice and judgement, not feedback.
Further, we often lack clear instructional objectives on which to give the feedback. So, responding to student work is random, tiring, and time-consuming.
Additionally, we put the onus on us to give the feedback. We have 15-30 helpers who we are trying to empower to be better readers and writers. They can help each other out with feedback. They’ll learn more by doing this then they will by not doing this.
Below, I’ll outline two lessons that happen after students draft an essay. Each takes a full 56-minute period for me. This includes the direct instruction, the instructions, the activity, and the reflection.
3a. No fear peer feedback
Students have lives outside of our classroom. Don’t forget, I tell myself. Yes, we can make our classrooms safe spaces for communicating with each other. People misuse that phrase today, but it is an important one for teachers. Even if we create an accepting classroom, some students are uncomfortable sharing. We may never know about the why behind this. It could be a rivalry that goes back to the fourth grade. Then, teachers make it worse by asking students to share their writing with these peers.
Think about it: Go to your next faculty meeting. Choose 15 people, circle them up, and exchange your personal writing. It’ll sound like this…
“Before you read it, just so you know, I finished that like five minutes before this, so”
“I didn’t get a chance to proofread, so there’s probably mistakes everywhere”
“Don’t read that part, I didn’t mean to leave that in”
[Reaches across lap of person to point to paragraph 2]”For this part, I meant to say ‘forgets’ not ‘forgives’”
Writing is vulnerability. That’s the guiding truth of the following peer feedback lessons.
To help students deal with the fear of criticism, I use the “No fear peer feedback” system. Here’s the basic idea:
- Students view examples from this article by Grant Wiggins. They turn and talk to discuss the difference between advice, judgement, and feedback.
- Students form small groups or pairs. Either arrangement works. They exchange papers.
- Students read their partner’s paper several times. Each time through, they examine one part of the rubric or one part of the expectations for the assignment.
- Next, students write a comment explaining how one part of the writing affected them. This is the one type of comment permitted. That’s it. Examples:
- The anecdote in your introduction engaged me right away. What was the connection to your thesis, though?
- Your evidence in paragraph four was the most convincing for me.
- I got lost in the middle of paragraph three because of your wording there.
So, there’s no opportunity for students to point out grammar mistakes the wrong way. There’s no chance for students to give undue criticism. Nothing but an honest reaction from one reader that the writer can use to revise.
Variations on this: Put students into groups and have them rotate the papers for each part of the rubric.
The last step is where students get the chance to develop their autonomy as writers. They use the feedback to write their revision plans. See the template and example below: (Images blurry? View them here.)
3b. Use Read Around Groups to Teach Students to Think Like Writers
It’s almost easier to show what read around groups look like then to tell about what they are. See the image below the instructions and I think you’ll get it.
In short, students read anonymous drafts of their classmate’s writing. Instead of their names, students write code names on their papers. They love this. After doing this activity for several years, here are the parameters I’ve come up with for the names:
- They must be appropriate to read over the loudspeaker with your name attached to it.
- They must be appropriate to share with your parents.
- They must not be another student’s’ name or something similar to it.
- They must not be an obviously identifying feature of you or another student.
- They must not be so long that Mr. Dawson’s hand hurts when he writes it on the board.
This list began with the first one but kids are creative. Back to the instructions…
Sitting in groups, they read four or five papers in a time period set by the teacher. I usually do 1-2 minutes per paper. Students won’t read the whole thing. This is OK.
Then, students vote for the paper that they feel is strongest. Sometimes, I ask students to focus on a specific part of the writing and sometimes it is just the vague task of choose the best one. Both situations have worked well.
The learning happens now. Students discuss with their partners to argue for why one paper is stronger than others. I walk around, listen to the discussion, and interrupt to emphasize when students are offering clear explanations about why one paper is stronger than others.
After each group has chosen a paper, I tally up the votes. Students collect their bunch of papers and pass them clockwise to another group. This continues until students have read all papers except the ones that their group wrote.
At the end, we have a handful of papers that have been voted as the best by the class. I’ve rarely disagreed with students selections, but I’ve often been surprised at the student who raises their hand when we ask something like “Whose code name is chocolatebunniez? Would you like to claim your victory?” It’s not always the students who I expect. This shows an ancillary benefit to the activity: It shakes up my biases.
At this point, you might be thinking that there hasn’t been any feedback yet. And you’re right. All along, though, students are often commenting on how certain writers do things that they have or have not done in their paper. At the end of the lesson, we read aloud excerpts from the winning papers. Then, if time allows, the next day I distribute copies of the winning papers to students and ask them to reflect on this question:
What did the writer do well in his/her paper that you might be able to emulate?
Students take back their papers to revise again. They are almost always better.
This idea comes from Teaching Adolescent Writers by Kelly Gallagher. That book is filled with great ideas. I don’t hear it mentioned as often as Mr. Gallagher’s other book. I recommend it.
Anyway, there are a few points that must be emphasized to students when using Read Around Groups:
- Students may get distracted by trying to guess each other’s codenames. I explicitly model this by acting it out. I walk over to an empty chair or desk, grab a paper, hold it with two hands and shake it in the air, while saying “THIS IS JOEY’S! JOEY THIS IS YOURS I KNOW IT!” Students laugh, and most of them get the message. The purpose is to read the papers anonymously.
- Students may trend towards talking very critically about the papers in their group. It is important to remind students to argue why certain papers are especially strong, instead of just criticizing all of the papers. This is a small shift that seems to help.
So, to recap everything so far:
- Try daily self-assessments based on the day’s objective
- Give students the rubric for a writing assignment and have them self-assess
- Conduct read around groups for peer evaluation
- Teach lessons on feedback vs. judgement vs. advice with carefully monitored activities on peer feedback (yes, it can work)
These are four processes that have caused an observable increase in autonomy for student writers. Yet, none of them require hours of writing comments that are never used.
The last step is about maximizing teacher-student feedback.
We need a system for grading papers. We can’t rely on sheer force. When we sacrifice our nights and weekends, we are not doing favors. We’re entering the paper-grading black hole.
The paper-grading black hole meets four criteria:
- We look for every writing issue
- We set no time constraint
- We grade and give feedback simultaneously (nearly worthless)
- We leave comments without a template to follow
When we enter the paper-grading black hole, it feels like the hard work of teaching writing. It’s like a martyrdom of literacy: How much time did you spend on those essays? The whole weekend. Until 11 last night. The last few on the sidelines of my kid’s softball game.
How sustainable is that?
Author Tim Ferriss said, “People tend to abandon the good system they’ll follow in search of the perfect system they’ll quit.”
As you read the following ideas for how to give teacher-student feedback, notice when you are proving Tim’s idea. You may have objections to some or all of these methods, and those objections are probably valid. But here’s the point: the perfect system for feedback is when the teacher addresses every issue on every essay, and students correct it all. And that “perfect system” is one we will eventually quit…if we don’t pass out from exhaustion first.
Each of the following, respectfully, is an “imperfect system” that allows us to provide teacher-student feedback in a focused, effective, and sustainable way. We need all three.
In the comments, tell me which of these systems you will try.
When you want students to revisit prior learning…
What it is: SE2R stands for summarize, explain, redirect, and resubmit. This is a format teachers can follow when leaving feedback on student work (not just essays). Here’s a breakdown:
Summarize: Summarize exactly what the student has done
Explain: Explain anything that needs clarification or improvement
Redirect: Redirect the student to prior learning, assignments, or resources
Resubmit: Invite the student to resubmit their work after improving
Why it works: This is a great system to follow for the format of feedback comments, and it works well with both of the other systems presented below. It meets the criteria of providing actual feedback because we summarize and explain the student’s work objectively before giving advice and suggestions. Also, it works whether we are writing a comment in Google Docs, leaving a note on an exit ticket, or holding a conference with a student. It is a great foundation on which to build our feedback approach.
When your rubric is a “hot mess”…
Use the single-point rubric by Jennifer Gonzales of Cult of Pedagogy.
What is it: It’s a rubric that eliminates questions like, “How exactly do I describe an advanced proficient use of evidence? How does it differ from just proficient?” The single-point rubric helps to address that situation by having one center column (the single point) where the criteria for the assignment are described. To the left is a column labeled concerns where the teacher can address areas in need of improvement. To the right is a column labeled advanced where the teacher can describe how the student is excelling.
Why it works: It eliminates a lot of the guesswork and unnecessary decision-making involved in creating rubrics. And, it changes the rubric from a grading instrument to a feedback tool.
When you see the same few issues, over and over…
Use the letter to the class by Todd Finley. This exercise makes reading student writing and responding to it fun. Don’t call me a liar before you try it.
What it is: The idea behind the letter to the class is that teachers can write one report back to all students, outlining the strengths and weaknesses of a set of papers. Then, students can identify the parts that are relevant and revise.
Why it works; This helps us avoid the essay-grading black hole because it puts the focus on patterns of errors and issues, instead of noticing every little thing. As we read the first five papers, then the first ten, we begin to notice the parts of our instruction that students have internalized and the parts that they are yet to master. So, not only does this reduce repetitive work, it also encourages reflection on our writing instruction.
Now, it’s time for feedback for you
Take a few minutes to reflect on your feedback and grading process, answering these questions:
- What’s working? (the good stuff)
- What’s not working? (the bad stuff)
- What next? (the changes you’d like to make)
Teaching, like writing, is a process. Each class is a first draft. Learning is your mini-lesson. Reflection is your feedback, and tomorrow the assignment is due again.
Thanks for reading! In the comments, tell me which of these systems you will try.